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Hierarchal imbalance of ‘Bottom-Up insufficiency’ impairs the formation of higher-level brain organization with the elimination of higher-level mental functions manly ‘Volition.’ These alterations involve millisecond-range neuronal and cognitive activity

Negative  Signs Avolition

Stimulate networks building the hierarchy from bottom-up. Stimulate unimodal multimodal activity and at the same time, synchronously activate higher-level trans modal regions such as the prefrontal networks 


Search for reduced connectivity within efferent pathways from peripheral locations to frontal regions. Dynamic causal modeling will show bottom-up hierarchal insufficiency in networks building the higher-level trans modal integration, manifested both in correlation matrixes and graph analysis.    


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